France’s Macron calls on G7 nations to ‘put an end to coal’ by 2030 at COP28 summit

French President Emmanuel Macron addressed the COP28 summit on Friday as world leaders gathered in Dubai for the second day of UN climate talks. Attendees are under pressure to step up efforts to limit global warming even as the Israel-Hamas conflict casts a shadow over the agenda. 

  • Spain to contribute 20 million euros to climate disaster fund

Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez said on Friday his country will increase its contribution to the climate disaster fund by 20 million euros.

Sanchez made the announcement during the United Nations climate conference, dubbed COP28, held in Dubai.

  • France’s Macron urges G7 nations to ‘put an end to coal’ by 2030

French President Emmanuel Macron urged G7 nations at UN climate talks on Friday to set an example to other countries and “commit to putting an end to coal” by 2030.

Speaking at COP28 in Dubai, Macron said investing in coal was “truly an absurdity”.

  • COP28 advisory board member resigns over reports of UAE fossil fuel dealmaking

A member of the main advisory board of the COP28 climate summit has resigned over reports that the United Arab Emirates (UAE) presidency used the meeting to secure new oil, gas deals, according to her resignation letter seen by Reuters.

Hilda Heine, former president of the low-lying, climate vulnerable Marshall Islands, said reports that the UAE planned to discuss possible natural gas and other commercial deals ahead of UN climate talks were “deeply disappointing” and threatened to undermine the credibility of the multilateral negotiation process.

“These actions undermine the integrity of the COP presidency and the process as a whole,” Heiner wrote in the letter she sent to COP President Sultan al-Jaber.

She added that the only way for Jaber to restore trust in the process was to “deliver an outcome that demonstrates that you are committed to phasing out fossil fuels”.

  • With 80,000 attendees, COP28 is largest UN climate summit ever

COP28 is officially the largest-ever UN climate summit, with 80,000 participants registered on a list that – for the first time – shows who they work for.

Until this year, those taking part were not obliged to say who they worked for, making it tricky to detect lobbyists and identify negotiators’ potential conflicts of interest.

Some 104,000 people, including technical and security staff, have access to the “blue zone” dedicated to the actual climate negotiations and the pavilions of the states and organisations present.

That largely exceeds the previous record at last year’s UN climate summit in Egypt, COP27, which had 49,000 accredited attendees, and where oil and gas lobbyists outnumbered most national delegations, according to NGOs.

This year, there are nearly 23,500 people from official government teams.

Among the host country’s guests are Bill Gates and Antoine Arnault, the son of LVMH boss Bernard Arnault, the second richest man in the world after Elon Musk, according to Forbes magazine.

  • Iran delegates quit COP28 over Israeli presence

Iranian delegates walked out of UN climate talks in the United Arab Emirates on Friday in protest over the presence of Israeli representatives, state media reported.

The Iranian side considered Israel’s presence at COP28 “as contrary to the goals and guidelines of the conference and, in protest, it left the conference venue”, Energy Minister Ali Akbar Mehrabian, who headed the Iranian delegation, was quoted as saying by the official news agency IRNA.

  • UAE president announces $30 billion fund to bridge climate finance gap

United Arab Emirates President Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed announced the establishment of a $30 billion (€27.5 billion) climate fund for global climate solutions that it hopes will lead to $250 billion in investment by the end of the decade.

Dubbed ALTÉRRA, the fund will allocate $25 billion towards climate strategies and $5 billion specifically to incentivise investment flows into the Global South, according to a statement by the COP28 presidency.

In collaboration with global asset managers BlackRock, Brookfield and TPG, ALTÉRRA has committed $6.5 billion to climate-dedicated funds for global investments, including the Global South, the statement said.

ALTÉRRA was established by Abu Dhabi-based alternate investment manager Lunate, and COP28 Director-General Majid Al Suwaidi will serve as ALTÉRRA’s chief executive officer.

  • Britain’s King Charles III praying that COP28 is ‘turning point’ for climate

King Charles III has told COP28 climate talks in Dubai must be a “critical turning point” in the fight against climate change, with “genuine transformational action”.

“I pray with all my heart that COP28 will be another critical turning point towards genuine transformational action,” Charles told assembled leaders including Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, French President Emmanuel Macron and Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.

“The Earth does not belong to us, we belong to the Earth,” said the king, a lifelong environmentalist, who missed last year’s COP27 in Egypt reportedly due to objections by then UK prime minister Liz Truss.

  • UN chief says ending fossil fuel use is only way to save ‘burning planet’

United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres told world leaders that the burning of fossil fuels must be stopped outright and a reduction or abatement in their use would not be enough to stop global warming.

“We cannot save a burning planet with a fire hose of fossil fuels,” Guterres said in a speech to the COP28 summit in Dubai. “The 1.5-degree limit is only possible if we ultimately stop burning all fossil fuels. Not reduce. Not abate.”

He urged fossil fuel companies to invest in a transition to renewable energy sources and told governments to help by forcing that change, including through the use of windfall taxes on industry profits.

FRANCE 24’s Valérie Dekimpe from COP28 in Dubai

Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber, president of this year’s COP28, makes opening remarks during the opening conference in Dubai on November 30, 2023. © Karim Sahib, AFP

  • COP28 draft calls for fossil fuels to be reduced or eliminated

Negotiators released the first draft of a UN agreement on climate action Friday calling for fossil fuels to be reduced or eliminated, setting up a fierce fight at the COP28 talks in the oil-rich United Arab Emirates.

Divisions over the future of fossil fuels have already surfaced at the COP28 talks and proposals for their “phase-down/out” contained in the draft prepared by the UK and Singapore will be highly contentious.

Calls for the inclusion of explicit curbs on coal, oil and gas in a final agreement have gained momentum, but any effort to limit fossil fuel use will encounter strong opposition.

(FRANCE 24 with AFP, Reuters, AP)

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Commonwealth realms: Which nations will King Charles III head? Will that change?

King Charles III may be set to lose yet another sovereign state under his rule – New Zealand – as Prime Minister Chris Hipkins said on May 1 that he favours his country becoming a republic. He, however, added that he does not intend for change right away.

Hours before leaving for London to attend King Charles III’s coronation, Mr. Hipkins told reporters, “Ideally, in time, New Zealand will become a fully independent country, will stand on our own two feet in the world, as we, by and large, do now”.

“I don’t think that swapping out the governor-general for some other form of head of state is necessarily an urgent priority right now, though,” he added.

New Zealand is a self-governing former British colony. However, Charles retains a largely ceremonial role as head of state and king and is represented in New Zealand by a governor-general. Like other former colonies, the debate over the constitutional role of the British monarchy in modern times is rife in New Zealand.

Apart from New Zealand, King Charles III is the monarch and head of state for fourteen sovereign countries, collectively known as the Commonwealth realms — Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and the United Kingdom (UK).

In 2021, Barbados removed the then-Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state, becoming the newest republic in the world. It was the first to cut ties from the British monarchy since 1992, when Mauritius became a republic.

Follow the coronation updates here: Charles III crowned King at first U.K. coronation in 70 years

What power does the King have over these nations?

As head of state, the King is represented by a Governor-General in these countries. In the name of the monarch, the Governor-General opens and dissolves parliament, commissions the Prime Minister, appoints other ministers after elections, gives assent to laws passed by Parliament and performs ceremonial duties as Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces, such as attending parades.

File photo: Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II poses for a group photograph with Commonwealth leaders in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, on November 27, 2009
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Here’s a look at the current Commonwealth realms & their relationship with the Crown:

Antigua and Barbuda

Situated in the West Indies, at the juncture of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, Antigua was colonized by the British in 1632 while Barbuda was colonized in 1678, primarily for slavery. The islands were decolonized in 1956 and joined the West Indies Federation. Antigua became self-governing in 1967, remaining dependent on the UK for external affairs and defence.

Amid calls for Independence in the 1970s in Antigua, Barbuda demanded secession from the larger island, voicing concerns about a stifled economy. However, autonomy talks were successful, and Antigua and Barbuda achieved independence on November 1, 1981. Shortly after, the country officially joined the United Nations and the Commonwealth —retaining the British monarch as its head of state.

On September 22, 2022, Reuters reported that the nation plans to hold a referendum about becoming a republic within the next three years. Following the death of Queen Elizabeth II, the country confirmed Charles III as its King, but Prime Minister Gaston Browne expressed a wish to ‘complete the circle of independence’ and become a republic.

File photo: Gaston Browne, prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda, speaks at the COP27 U.N. Climate Summit, on November 8, 2022, in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.

File photo: Gaston Browne, prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda, speaks at the COP27 U.N. Climate Summit, on November 8, 2022, in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
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Australia, New Zealand & Papua New Guinea

The first British settlers arrived in Australia in 1788, establishing a penal colony in a land hitherto inhabited by over 500 aboriginal groups.

Strengthed by the arrival of the British Navy, the settlers waged several wars against the indigenous Maori population, eventually colonizing Australia, Tasmania, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand, which lost nearly 60% of their native inhabitants. As the settlers’ population grew, Australia was split into six colonies—over 80% white.

In 1901, Australia became a federation and the British monarch became the titular head of the state. Amid calls to become a republic, Australia held a referendum in 1999, which failed.

Recently, the Reserve Bank of Australia announced that King Charles III will not feature on Australia’s new five dollar note, opting to pay tribute to Indigenous Australians. While there are no urgent calls to alter the monarchy’s role, the government hopes to push for a referendum by 2025 if current Prime Minister Anthony Albanese wins a second term.

Similarly, New Zealand’s ex-Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said that while the country would not actively push to become a republic, it eventually would. A New Zealand lobby group called Republic has set a goal of 2040 for a transition, hoping Australia’s referendum could speed up New Zealand’s process.

Australia and New Zealand’s neighbour, Papua New Guinea, too was colonised by the British in the 1880s following gold finds. Later, the island, dubbed New Guinea, was handed over to the Australian federation in 1906. Rich in cacao and Arabica coffee plantations, New Guinea remained under Australian administration till 1975. There have not been any strong calls for the removal of the King as titular head.

File photo: Then Australian Republican Movement chief Malcolm Turnbull during a referendum vote on becoming a republic in 1999.

File photo: Then Australian Republican Movement chief Malcolm Turnbull during a referendum vote on becoming a republic in 1999.
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The Solomon Islands

Comprising six major countries and 900 smaller islands, the Solomon Islands are situated east of Papua New Guinea. These islands were exploited by the German and British armies for slave labour for plantations in Fiji and Queensland, Australia. By 1899, the Solomon Islands were under British rule and remained so till its independence on July 7, 1978. The debate for removing the Crown as its head has arisen post the death of Queen Elizabeth II.

The Bahamas

Another island in West Indies, the Bahamas was colonized by the British in 1666, with a plantation colony set up comprising the native Lucayans. However, the settlers soon lost interest in developing the islands and they turned into a pirate haven. In 1718, British troops were sent to tackle the pirate menace, and the island was captured by the US Navy in 1783, prompting an inflow of American migrants.

The island gained formal independence on January 7, 1964, with natives having control over internal affairs while the Governor-General looked after foreign affairs, defence, and internal security.

As economic conditions worsened in the Caribbean due to multiple devastating hurricanes and the global COVID-19 lockdown, the monarchy has not been a top concern.

However, since Barbados’ move to remove the Queen as head of state in 2021, other Caribbean islands too voiced their inclination to do so, demanding a formal apology from the monarchy for its role in slavery, colonization and the impoverishment of colonies.

File photo: Queen Elizabeth II visiting Nassau, Bahamas in 1994

File photo: Queen Elizabeth II visiting Nassau, Bahamas in 1994
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The Royal Family

Other Caribbean island-nations

Four other Caribbean islands — Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis—were colonized by the British in 1862, 1877, 1866 and 1623 respectively. They were mainly colonized for slave labour and cultivating crops such as sugarcane, yams, plantains, cocoa, coffee, and cotton. Saint Kitts and Nevis was the first Caribbean colony of the British Empire in 1623, while Grenada was handed over to the British by the French in 1783.

Belize, known as British Honduras till 1973, achieved full independence on September 21, 1981, after months of negotiations with Great Britain and Guatemala over territory disputes. Grenada became independent in 1974, and Saint Kitts and Nevis in 1983. Jamaica — one of the world’s biggest slave markets established by Britain’s Royal African Company — cultivated much of Europe’s sugar, indigo, and cacao. Jamaica became independent in 1962.

People protest to demand an apology and slavery reparations during a visit to the former British colony by, Prince William and Kate, in Kingston, Jamaica, Tuesday, March 22, 2022

People protest to demand an apology and slavery reparations during a visit to the former British colony by, Prince William and Kate, in Kingston, Jamaica, Tuesday, March 22, 2022
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Two other Caribbean islands and former French colonies later handed over to the British are Saint Lucia (in 1814) & Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (in 1796). These were the last of the Caribbean colonies to gain independence in 1973.

After Barbados cut ties with the Queen, all six islands —Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines— have sought to become republics. In 2022, visits from members of the royal family were met with protests from locals demanding reparations for slavery and an apology for colonization.


Tuvalu, a group of eight islands in the South Pacific Ocean, was first colonized by the British as part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony in 1916 for slave labour. Amid racial tensions and secession demands from Ellice Islanders, the colony was split into two in 1976 and gained independence as Tuvalu in 1978. Two referendums were held in 1986 and 2008 on the question of whether the country should become a republic. Both failed, and the country remains a constitutional monarchy.


Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Governor General Mary Simon and Cabinet members take part in a ceremony to proclaim the accession of the new Sovereign, King Charles III, at Rideau Hall, in Ottawa, Saturday, Sept. 10, 2022.

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Governor General Mary Simon and Cabinet members take part in a ceremony to proclaim the accession of the new Sovereign, King Charles III, at Rideau Hall, in Ottawa, Saturday, Sept. 10, 2022.
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One of the British Empire’s largest colonies, Canada was colonised in the 1530s, with colonies set up in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Hudson Bay. . The French too set up colonies stretching from the Atlantic to the Hudson Bay, but lost them in the French and Indian War in 1763. As the British expanded their colonies, aboriginal Canadians were driven out. The Dominion of Canada was set up combining Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in 1867 — giving Canada self-governing powers under the Crown.

In 1931, Canada was put on equal footing with other Commonwealth countries, with full legal freedom; however, Britain retained the ability to amend the Canadian Constitution. It was in 1982 that Canada finally became a completely independent country, adopting its own Constitution.

The monarchy issue remains pending. In 2022, a parliamentary motion by Bloc Quebecois to cut ties with the British crown was voted down by Canada’s House of Commons by a 266-44 margin.

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Which European royals are attending King Charles III’s coronation?

The British royal family have close friendships – and numerous familial connections – with royal families all across Europe.

The coronation of Britain’s King Charles III will see the biggest gathering of European royalty since the funeral of Queen Elizabeth II in September last year. 

Historically, convention dictated that no other reigning royals would be in attendance at the coronation of a British monarch. But Charles and Camilla have extended invitations to their friends and relatives in royal families around Europe and the world — monarchs and royals from Africa, Asia and the Middle East have arrived in London to take part in the ceremonies. 

So which European royals are attending the coronation, and how are they related to the British royals? 

Here’s our guide:


King Philippe and Queen Mathilde of Belgium are attending the coronation. Their eldest daughter, Princess Elisabeth, studies history and politics at Oxford University, and accompanied her father to a reception at Buckingham Palace on Friday evening, the night before the coronation. 

How are the British and Belgian royal families related? It’s complicated, but: King Philippe’s ancestor is King Leopold I, the first King of the Belgians, who was also Queen Victoria’s uncle. And Queen Victoria was Charles III’s great-great-great-grandmother.


Queen Margrethe II will be unable to attend as she is recovering from back surgery. Instead, her eldest son and heir Crown Prince Frederik and his wife Crown Princess Mary will be there. 

The Danish royal couple met at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games and romance blossomed. 

Queen Margrethe II of Denmark is a distant relative of King Charles through their shared ancestry with Queen Victoria.


Queen Anne-Marie of Greece is attending the coronation with her son Crown Prince Pavlos and daughter-in-law Crown Princess Marie-Chantal. King Charles III is Pavlos’s godfather, while Prince William is the godfather to Pavlos and Marie-Chantal’s son Prince Constantine.

Anne-Marie’s late husband, the former King Constantine II of Greece, died in January this year. He was Prince William’s godfather.

The Greek royals are related to many other European royal houses: Queen Anne-Marie is the youngest sister of Denmark’s Queen Margrethe II. She is also a first cousin of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and a second cousin of King Harald V of Norway. She was also a third cousin of her own late husband King Constantine, as they both had King Christian IX of Denmark as a great-great-grandfather. 


The House of Liechtenstein dates back to the early 1600s, and the royal family gives its name to the tiny European country of just 38,000 people. 

Hereditary Prince Alois and Hereditary Princess Sophie of Liechtenstein are attending the coronation in London. 

Prince Alois rules Liechtenstein jointly with his father, Hereditary Prince Hans-Adam II, who was an eighth cousin of Queen Elizabeth II – both were descendants of Ludwig, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

“Hereditary Prince Alois … therefore is the ninth nephew of HM Queen Elizabeth II,” the Liechtenstein royal household told Euronews recently – so King Charles, Prince Hans-Adam and Prince Alois are all related, but very distantly indeed. 

Interestingly, Princess Sophie – who was born into a Bavarian aristocratic family – can trace her relatives directly back to Scotland’s Bonnie Prince Charlie, whose descendants have a hypothetical claim to the crown: which makes Sophie second in line to become the Jacobite Queen of England and Scotland – although her uncle, who is first in line, has described the claim as purely “hypothetical”. 


Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa are attending the coronation, and have a special connection to the UK. 

Henri’s mother, Grand Duchess Charlotte, fled Luxembourg after the German invasion in WWII and was exiled to London for two years. She broadcast messages over the BBC and became a symbol of her country’s resistance during the war.

The Grand Duke and King Charles III were both related to Britain’s King George II and Queen Caroline, who ruled in the mid-1700s.  


The Monégasque Royal Family will be represented at the coronation by Prince Albert II and Princess Charlene.

The House of Grimaldi has ruled the tiny Mediterranean principality for 700 years, and during the 20th century became a symbol of glittering, modern European royalty when Prince Albert’s father married Hollywood star Grace Kelly after meeting at the Cannes Film Festival. But tragedy struck when Princess Grace died in a car crash in 1982.

Like the Danish Crown Prince and Princess, Monaco’s Albert and Charlene met at the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000, where she was a swimmer representing South Africa. 


The Dutch royal family have traditionally been close to their British counterparts, and this is why King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima will be attending the coronation. 

Princess Catharina-Amalia, and Princess Beatrix, the former queen who abdicated in favour of her son in 2013, represented the Netherlands at a Buckingham Palace reception with King Charles on the eve of the coronation. 

The Dutch king and Charles’s are sixth cousins – Willem-Alexander is a descendant of Princess Carolina, the daughter of King William IV; while Charles is also related to Princess Carolina through his great-grandmother Queen Mary. 


Crown Prince Haakon and Crown Princess Mette-Marit will represent King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway. 

It will be the royal couple’s second visit to the UK recently, as they were hosted by the Prince and Princess of Wales at Kensington Palace in March.

The Norwegian royals are especially close with the British royals. 

Queen Elizabeth II and King Harald were second cousins, sharing the same great-grandparents – King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra – who were the father and mother of Norway’s own Queen Maud.

When Norway was occupied by Germany in 1940, King Haakon and Crown Prince Olav (the current king’s grandfather and father) were forced to flee the country and live in exile in London. “This brought the two branches of the family even closer together,” the Norwegian royal household said in a recent statement.

When she was young, Queen Elizabeth II used to call King Haakon “Uncle Charles” and according to the Norwegian royal family, “Uncle Charles” was the Queen’s favourite uncle – and she named Prince Charles after King Haakon.

Noway was the first country outside the Commonwealth that Queen Elizabeth paid a state visit to, in 1955, and she visited three times in total, as the guest of three generations of Norwegian kings.

Since King Harald and Queen Sonja were crowned in 1991, they have paid an annual visit to the United Kingdom to visit their British relatives in the royal family. 


King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia of Spain are attending the coronation, and controversially they might not be the only Spanish royals in attendance. 

Both of Felipe’s parents, ex-King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia, attended the funeral of Queen Elizabeth in 2022, but did so separately as they are estranged following a number of controversies and revelations of extra-marital affairs Juan Carlos was involved in over the years.

Spanish media are reporting that Juan Carlos and Sofia have not been invited to the coronation in an _official_capacity but that leaves the door open for them to be invited in a personal capacity since there have been close relationships between the House of Windsor and the House of Borbón over the decades. 

King Felipe was a third cousin to Queen Elizabeth’s – and affectionately called her “Auntie Lilibet” – while his father King Juan Carlos is the great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria (King Charles is the great-great-great-grandson of Victoria.)


Despite recovering from heart surgery, King Carl XVI Gustaf is in London to attend the coronation, alongside his daughter, Crown Princess Victoria rather than his wife Queen Silvia. 

The Swedish king is celebrating his Golden Jubilee this year. 

The House of Bernadotte is one of Europe’s grandest royal families, and also among the most closely related to the British royals.

So how are the two great European houses, Sweden and Britain, related, and what about links to other Scandinavian royalty?

In the simplest terms, King Carl XVI Gustaf’s great-great-grandmother is Queen Victoria, who is also King Charles’s great-great-great-grandmother. (In more complicated terms, the Swedish King is also related on his mother’s side to Queen Victoria’s eighth son Prince Leopold).

And across the region, King Carl XVI Gustav is the cousin of Queen Margrethe of Denmark as they both have the same grandfather; while the Swedish monarch is second cousin to King Harald V of Norway, because Harald’s mother was born a Swedish princess. 

Which other European royals will be at the coronation?

Margareta of Romania, known as the Custodian of the Crown of Romania, and her husband Prince Radu, have confirmed their attendance, and were at a reception at Buckingham Palace on the eve of the coronation.   

Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia is the heir to a royal dynasty that was last in power in 1945. He was born in London during WWII and christened at Westminster Abbey with King George IV and then-Princess Elizabeth as his godparents. He is expected to be at the coronation with his wife Crown Princess Katherine.

Bulgaria’s ex-king and former prime minister, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha will also be attending. 

Three members of the German aristocracy will be in London for King Charles’s coronation as well, but how are they related to the British royal family? 

Hereditary Prince Bernhard of Baden’s grandmother was the late Prince Philip the Duke of Edinburgh’s sister.

Prince Heinrich Donatus of Hesse is related to Queen Victoria and also a distant cousin of Prince Philip. 

Prince Philipp of Hohenlohe-Langenburg was a grand-nephew of Prince Philip, and Britain’s Princess Anne is his godmother.

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King Charles III: A radical environmentalist or mainstream ecologist?

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King Charles III was mocked in the past as an eccentric for championing organic farming, but will demonstrate his continuing commitment at his coronation which will be steeped in symbols of nature and the environment. But will he be able to hold on to his beliefs as king, given that the role requires frequent travel etc and runs counter to the British monarchy’s many traditions?

As an environmentalist long before Greta Thunberg was even born, green issues ranging from climate change to biodiversity have been at the heart of Charles’s Royal work.

His coronation itself will be marked by his long-held environmentalism from his wearing clothes that belonged to previous monarchs and serving a vegetarian main course at the main meal. This fervent ecologist is thus making his “green” mark and making his mark on the ceremony.

Charles has always been forward-thinking on the issue of the planet, warning about the dangers in a speech in 1970 at just 21. He said that the planet was in danger and denounced chemical, air and oil pollution, “which almost destroys beaches and certainly destroys tens of thousands of seabirds”.


Organic farming and endangered pigs  

The British Crown’s property and Charles III’s own land introduced organic farming practices on some of it in far ahead of the curve as 1985. On his 440-hectare farm at Highgrove in south-west England, he has experimented with natural instead of chemical pesticides on his fields. The site is also home to over 73 species of rare animals, including Tamworth pigs, which are one of the oldest breeds in the country and currently endangered.

On his Dorset estate in the southern part of the country, he has also built a very popular village using only eco-friendly materials, waste separation and other principles of sustainable urban living and planning.

Later, he installed wood chip boilers in his homes and converted his Jaguar and Land Rover to run on biodiesel, made from used cooking oil, along with a host of other green measures. Over the years, his experiments have sometimes been met with further mockery, such as when he said at COP26 in 2021 that his Aston Martin runs on “surplus English white wine and whey from the cheese process”. This idea has obviously been dismissed for mass usage.

From 2007 onwards, Charles III began tracking and publishing his carbon footprint, which he has done every year since. He has committed to offsetting his emissions by investing in sustainable energy projects where it is not possible to reduce them. 

Big statements at the World Economic Forum 

Unlike his mother, who was thrust onto the throne as a child, the former Prince of Wales has had 70 years to observe how the world has changed. During all these years, he has taken advantage of his official travels and international speeches to put environmental conservation in the spotlight, even if it means shocking his audience. 

In 2020 at the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos, he supported the young climate activist Greta Thunberg and criticised the business world’s lack of ecological commitment. “What good is all the extra wealth in the world, gained from ‘business as usual’, if you can do nothing with it except watch it burn in catastrophic conditions?” asked Charles III during his speech

In partnership with the WEF, the sovereign created the Sustainable Markets Council a year ago, a body charged with encouraging best practice, identifying innovative technologies and linking investors to projects. 


In partnership with the WEF, the sovereign created the Sustainable Markets Council a year before this famous speech, a body charged with encouraging best practice, identifying innovative technologies and linking investors to projects. 

Political neutrality and mainstream ecology 

However, “Charles III’s positions are not radical,” says Thibaud Harrois, lecturer in contemporary British civilisation at Paris’ Sorbonne-Nouvelle University. “He has not called for the end of capitalism. He is doing what could be described as ‘mainstream’ ecology, accepted by all at a time when there is scientific consensus on the issue of global warming,” adds Harrois.    

In his role as monarch, the British sovereign is subject to political neutrality, says the lecturer, adding that he doubts Thunberg will ever be invited to Buckingham Palace. “It would be daring because she symbolises a type of activism – a climate strike – that is politically contested. It’s hard to imagine that the king would do something that could have a political impact and damage the British government,” says Harrois. He received a huge backlash in the UK for getting involved in the environmental movement so publically, for as a “working Royal” he is not supposed to interfere with UK government policy. Their role is as ambassadors to the UK — symbolic — and to work on social and charitable causes in the UK.

In 2004, however, Charles secretly sent a series of handwritten letters to several British ministers and politicians. In these very personal letters, the former prince shared his views on organic farming, global warming and urban planning, for which he was later severely criticised.

King Charles III’s private jet trips 

He is largely seen as a “’green monarch’ but he is criticised for his lifestyle; including his love of fox hunting and frequent air travel, which many feel run contradictory to his environmental stance. 

Even though Charles III is monitoring his carbon footprint, he continues to travel regularly by private plane and go on ski holidays every winter, an activity that is being increasingly criticised for its environmental impact. In 2020 alone, his carbon footprint was estimated at 3,133 tonnes of CO2 compared to the 8.3 tonnes emitted by the average British citizen.     

Britain’s King Charles III and Camilla, Queen Consort, exit their plane after landing at Berlin Brandenburg Airport in Schoenefeld, Germany, on March 29, 2023. © Odd Andersen, AFP


That same year, the Daily Mail criticised the former prince for flying 25,000 kilometres in a private jet 11 days before he attended the WEF in Davos, Switzerland, where he posed alongside Thunberg. During this short period, Charles III travelled by private jet three times, not counting the five empty trips to pick him up. He has been involved in other controversies, including when he travelled to New York in 2007 with a team of 20 people to receive an ecology award. 

At a time when global warming is more topical than ever, one thing is certain: the next British monarch will continue to be criticised even after he is crowned whatever he or she does and their overseas travel closely monitored.

This article has been translated from the original in French

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Charles III’s ‘slimmed down’ coronation still aims to capture royal magic

Charles III will be crowned king of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth Realm nations on Saturday in a ceremony imbued with religious and national symbolism. Yet some significant changes to protocol aim to bring the normally extravagant ceremony down to earth – while retaining some royal mystique. 

Many of the rituals and mythical-sounding objects that will be used for the coronation of Charles III draw deeply on national symbolism dating back hundreds – if not thousands – of years. 

London’s Westminster Abbey has been a venue for coronations since 1066, and artifacts such as the silver-gilt coronation spoon (used to transfer the holy oil for anointing the monarch) date back to 1349.

During the ceremony, King Charles III will wear the same lavish robes used for his grandfather George VI’s coronation and carry a 17th-century golden orb and sceptre last seen atop the coffin of Queen Elizabeth II. 

When he is crowned, the king will sit upon the Stone of Destiny – an ancient and sacred symbol of Scottish monarchy that some historians date back to biblical times.

At its heart, the ceremony will aim to convey the history, tradition and enigma the monarchy embodies.

“It will be a very mysterious-looking ceremony that may look bizarre to many people across the world. But what will look bizarre to some will look mesmerising for others,” says Luke Blaxill, lecturer in British political and constitutional history at the University of Oxford.  

Ardent fans are mesmerised already. Along The Mall – the long avenue leading up to the royal residence, Buckingham Palace ­– committed royal well-wishers began camping out in late April to ensure a prime view of the royal procession to and from the abbey. 

Royal enthusiasts camp along the king’s coronation route at The Mall with Buckingham Palace in the background in London, Tuesday, May 2, 2023. © Emilio Morenatti, AP

Although the ceremony will certainly be opulent, it is intended to be less ostentatious than coronations past.

“This event is streamlined and slimmed down,” says Ed Owens, royal historian and author of “The Family Firm”. “There’s a much greater emphasis on the democratisation of the ritual and the ceremony as a result.”  

This approach correlates with a decades-long effort among the royal family to boost its popularity by appearing more accessible, and means a more inclusive ceremony. Women bishops will take part in a coronation for the first time on Saturday, as will representatives of non-Christian faiths. In another first, texts will be read in Welsh, Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic.   

The guest list for the ceremony has also been adapted: most of Britain’s 24 non-royal dukes, who normally attend in coronation robes and coronets, are not invited. Some 2,000 guests are expected, including 450 members of the public who have served their communities – a far cry from the more than 8,000 who squeezed into Westminster Abbey for Elizabeth II’s coronation 70 years ago. 

A down-to-earth monarch

As this will be the first coronation most viewers have witnessed, the more obscure changes are likely to go unnoticed. Time-consuming rituals, such as presenting the monarch with gold ingots, have been axed to bring the duration of the ceremony to just over an hour.  

Other details aim to convey the image of a more down-to-earth royal ceremony, quite literally. 

Invitations to the ceremony emphasised the king’s environmentalism, featuring flora from the British Isles and the Green Man, an ancient figure from British folklore symbolising spring and rebirth. State leaders have been encouraged to reduce emissions by travelling to the ceremony on charter flights instead of private jets and key items, such as the king’s coronation robes and throne chairs, are being repaired and reused instead of commissioned. 

Symbolic images of nature will be threaded throughout the ceremony; Catherine the Princess of Wales is reportedly considering wearing a floral headpiece instead of a tiara.  

A member of the Royal School of Needlework hand embroiders the Robe of Estate that will be worn by Camilla, the Queen Consort, at the coronation on May 6.
A member of the Royal School of Needlework hand embroiders the Robe of Estate that will be worn by Camilla, the Queen Consort, at the coronation on May 6. © Buckingham Palace via AP

Such changes mark a change in approach from the monumental display of royal pageantry for Elizabeth II’s state funeral eight months previously, and may be an acknowledgment that the public could be feeling fatigue from large-scale royal events.

“There’s only a certain amount of public appetite for royal pomp and ceremony, even in Britain,” Blaxill says. “There will be a reduction in the novelty element. And the important background context here is that there’s a cost-of-living crisis – this deliberately, slightly scaled-down ceremony is a quite deliberate attempt to reflect that.” 

Even though the ceremony has been slimmed-down”, estimates of how much the coronation will cost have already drawn backlash amid reports that Charles III’s personal fortune runs into the billions. 

Tabloid newspaper “The Mirror” reported British taxpayers will foot a bill of £250 million for the ceremony, with £150 million (€170 million) being spent on security alone. For comparison, it reports that Elizabeth II’s coronation 70 years ago cost the equivalent of £47 million.  

Other media outlets have placed the total cost at closer to £100 million, still a seemingly extravagant sum at a time when inflation is pricing some Britons out of purchasing essential goods.  

The cost-of-living-crisis is not the only issue giving people pause. After Brexit, a series of short-lived prime ministers and the death of its longest-ruling monarch, Britain has lost the clear sense of national identity a large-scale coronation could help consolidate.

“The coronation is meant to be an event that projects a sense of British self-confidence, but Britain’s had a pretty tough time for the last seven years,” Owens says. “There’s nothing like the same level of positivity or optimism that characterised Elizabeth II’s coronation.” 

Royal magic 

Britain is far from a nation of ardent royalists; just over a third of British adults feel indifferent towards the coronation.

One ill-fated attempt to make the process less elitist has drawn near-universal ire. Instead of the traditional “Homage of Peers”, during which hereditary peers – historically members of the aristocracy – knelt to pledge their loyalty to the king, the “Homage of the People” will invite viewers at home to swear allegiance to King Charles III and his successors. Critics have called the attempt to democratise the ceremony “tone deaf”.

“Britain is a liberal democracy, where we believe in freedom of speech,” Owens says. “The idea that we are having words put in our mouths as part of this ceremony, and are swearing an oath of loyalty to the monarch and his successors, notably, has been problematic.” 

“I think, perhaps, asking people to say, ‘God save the king’ would have been about the limit,” Blaxill adds. 

And yet, almost half of adults in the UK plan to watch the ceremony or take part in coronation celebrations over the weekend.  

Notable republicans, including Scottish First Minister Humza Yousaf, Welsh First Minister Mark Drakeford and Sinn Fein’s Northern Ireland leader Michelle O’Neill have also said they will attend the ceremony in person.

They are, perhaps, hoping to witness a unique, historical spectacle – if not a moment of royal magic. 

The sacred act of anointing the monarch with holy oil will take place behind the anointing screen, pictured here in the Chapel Royal at St James's Palace in London on April 24, 2023.
The sacred act of anointing the monarch with holy oil will take place behind the anointing screen, pictured here in the Chapel Royal at St James’s Palace in London on April 24, 2023. © Victoria Jones, AFP

As much as the coronation of Charles III has been designed to give the impression of a humbler head of state than his predecessors, he must also retain some of the mystical power that allows people to see him as a monarch and not just a man in a golden crown. 

Historically, coronations were deliberately closed off from the public to project a sense of elite power and mysteryand one moment on Saturday will uphold this tradition. The most sacred part of the ceremony, dating back to the 7th century, will happen behind a specially designed screen. During the unction, the most senior bishop in the Church of England anoints the monarch with holy oil, thereby signalling that the king has been chosen by God. 

“It’s the moment where the mystique and the spiritual dimensions of the monarchy are made visible through their invisibility,” Owens says. A few minutes during which millions of viewers in Britain, the Commonweath and beyond are invited to suspend their disbelief and make a leap of faith to transform Charles III into a king.

Coronation of King Charles III
Coronation of King Charles III © Creative Department – France Médias Monde

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The anatomy of a coronation: A guide to the crowning of King Charles III

What is the coronation schedule?

The coronation of Britain’s King Charles III and Camilla, the Queen Consort, will take place at noon (London time) on Saturday, May 6, at Westminster Abbey, where coronations have taken place for around 900 years.

Prior to this, the King and Queen Consort will undertake a procession from Buckingham Palace to the Abbey for the ceremonies, which are scheduled to begin at 11:00 a.m. and will be officiated by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The event is expected to conclude at 1 p.m., following which the royal family will watch a fly past from the balcony of Buckingham Palace.

There will be a concert at Windsor Castle on Sunday evening featuring Katie Perry, Take That, Andre Bocelli, Lionel Richie and others.

The weekend’s events include community lunches on Sunday and volunteer mobilisation activities on Monday – to reflect the King’s long running association with community and volunteering activities.

How does this British coronation compare to previous ones?

Apart from the coronation reflecting the individual preferences of the monarch, this year’s events “will reflect the Monarch’s role today and look towards the future, while being rooted in longstanding traditions and pageantry”, according to Buckingham Palace.

Also read | King Charles III’s coronation: Details revealed about coronation service

For instance, at least one of the six coronation ‘vestments’ will be recycled from George VI’s coronation “in the interests of sustainability and efficiency” Buckingham Palace said. Several of the chairs used during the ceremonies will also be restored and reused – such as the Chairs of Estate, which were made in 1953 and used during Queen Elizabeth’s coronation.

There will also be traditions dating back hundreds of years. The throne that will be used for the ceremony was built over 700 years ago and used first by Edward the Confessor (whose reign ended in 1066). It sits over a 152 kg stone – the Stone of Scone or the Stone of Destiny, which has been used by Scottish rulers for centuries and was seized by Edward I of England in 1296 (the English and Scottish crowns were unified in 1603). Former U.K. Prime Minister John Major returned the stone to Scotland 700 years later, in 1996, and it was brought back to Westminster Abby last week for the May 6 ceremonies.

In a departure from tradition, Camilla will not wear the Platinum Crown which has the Koh-i-Noor diamond embedded in it. The crown was set aside, reportedly following concerns that wearing the diamond could cause offence, especially in India, from where the East India Company took it.

File photo of the Gold State Coach being led in a procession as it leaves Westminster Abbey in central London on May 3, 2023, during a rehearsal for the Coronation of King Charles III.

File photo of the Gold State Coach being led in a procession as it leaves Westminster Abbey in central London on May 3, 2023, during a rehearsal for the Coronation of King Charles III.
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The religious landscape of Britain is vastly different today than it was when Charles’s mother ascended the throne in 1953. To reflect this, Jewish, Hindu, Sikh, Muslim and Buddhist leaders will present the King with coronation regalia and also greet him following the coronation.

The British monarch is styled ‘Defender of the Faith’ – i.e., the Protestant faith espoused by the Church of England. In the 1990s, the King, then Prince Charles, had said, controversially, that he would be a ‘Defender of Faith’ rather than ‘Defender of the Faith’ to reflect the changed religious landscape of the country. The preamble to his oath on Saturday will have a reference to the King fostering “an environment in which people of all faiths and beliefs may live freely”.

During the coronation, the public will be invited to swear allegiance to the King and “his heirs and successors”. This is also a new element to the coronation. While some (such as Members of the U.K. parliament) have come out in support of this, others have objected.

“In a democracy, it is the head of state who should be swearing allegiance to the people, not the other way around. This kind of nonsense should have died with Elizabeth I, not outlived Elizabeth II,” said Graham Smith, CEO of Republic, a group that is campaigning to make the U.K. a Republic.

Who is attending the coronation?

India will be represented by Vice President Jagdeep Dhankhar. The funeral of Queen Elizabeth II was attended by President Droupadi Murmu and the last coronation, six years after India’s independence, was attended by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

The United States will be represented by First Lady Jill Biden – President Joe Biden will not attend, sticking to the tradition of American presidents skipping the crowning of a British monarch. French President Macron is also on the list as are the heads of government of the commonwealth ‘realms’ – such as Prime Minister Anthony Albanese of Australia. European and world royalty will also be in attendance – including the King and Queen of Bhutan, the Crown Prince and Princess of Japan and the Maori King and Queen.

The King’s daughter-in-law, Meghan Markle, will be conspicuous by her absence. The Duchess of Sussex will remain in California while her husband, Prince Harry, will attend his father’s coronation, months after publishing a revealing memoir, Spare, which further strained his and Ms Markle’s relationship with the King and the heir to the throne, Prince William.

Who pays for the coronation?

The U.K. Government, i.e., U.K. taxpayers, will foot the bill for the coronation which is estimated to be £100 million ($125 million). In 1953, the British Government spent £1.57 million or £46 million in today’s terms on the late Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation in 1953, according to an analysis in The Times.

Britain’s Princess Anne, as Colonel of The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons), sits for a group photo with Officers and senior Non-Commissioned Officers of The Household Division during her visit to Wellington Barracks on May 3, 2023, ahead of the coronation.

Britain’s Princess Anne, as Colonel of The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons), sits for a group photo with Officers and senior Non-Commissioned Officers of The Household Division during her visit to Wellington Barracks on May 3, 2023, ahead of the coronation.
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Is the monarchy popular?

A significant majority of Britons think that the U.K. should continue to have a monarchy. An April 26-27 YouGov poll showed that 60% of adults were in support of the institution continuing, while 26% said the country should have an elected head of state ( 15% were in the “don’t know” category). Support for the monarchy was the highest in England and then Wales. Only 42% of Scottish people surveyed thought the monarchy should continue, with 46% preferring an elected head of state.

Support for the monarchy was the lowest in the 18-24 age group (32% support it while 44% want an elected head of state) and higher in older groups. It was also higher among those who voted to leave the European Union and those who voted for the Conservative Party in the 2019 general election, and slightly higher among women.

Approval ratings for members of the royal family have dropped since the publication of Prince Harry’s memoir. These ratings had risen around the death of Queen Elizabeth in September last year. 51% of adults think that King Charles will do a good job as monarch, according to March data from Ipsos.

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Charles III coronation open to all faiths

King Charles III hopes his coronation will serve to bridge the religious and cultural divides in diverse Britain.

Rabbi Nicky Liss won’t be watching King Charles III’s coronation. He’ll be doing something he considers more important: praying for the monarch on the Jewish sabbath.

On Saturday, he will join rabbis across Britain in reading a prayer in English and Hebrew that gives thanks for the new king in the name of the “one God who created us all”.

Liss, the rabbi of Highgate Synagogue in north London, said British Jews appreciated Charles’ pledge to promote the co-existence of all faiths and his record of supporting a multifaith society during his long apprenticeship as heir to the throne.

“When he says he wants to be a defender of faiths, that means the world because our history hasn’t always been so simple and we haven’t always lived freely; we haven’t been able to practise our religion,” Liss told The Associated Press. “But knowing that King Charles acts this way and speaks this way is tremendously comforting.”

At a time when religion is fueling tensions around the world — from Hindu nationalists in India to Jewish settlers in the West Bank and fundamentalist Christians in the United States — Charles is trying to bridge the differences between the faith groups that make up Britain’s increasingly diverse society.

Achieving that goal is critical to the new king’s efforts to show that the monarchy, a 1,000-year-old institution with Christian roots, can still represent the people of modern, multicultural Britain.

Supreme governor

But Charles, the supreme governor of the Church of England, faces a very different country than the one that adoringly celebrated his mother’s coronation in 1953.

Seventy years ago, more than 80% of the people of England were Christian, and the mass migration that would change the face of the nation was just beginning. That figure has now dropped below half, with 37% saying they have no religion, 6.5% calling themselves Muslim and 1.7% Hindu, according to the latest census figures. The change is even more pronounced in London, where more than a quarter of the population have a non-Christian faith.

Charles recognized that change long before he became king last September.

Defender of faith

As far back as the 1990s, Charles suggested that he would like to be known as “the defender of faith,” a small but hugely symbolic change from the monarch’s traditional title of “defender of the faith,” meaning Christianity. It’s an important distinction for a man who believes in the healing power of yoga and once called Islam “one of the greatest treasuries of accumulated wisdom and spiritual knowledge available to humanity.”

The king’s commitment to diversity will be on display at his coronation, when religious leaders representing the Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and Sikh traditions will for the first time play an active role in the ceremonies.

“I have always thought of Britain as a ‘community of communities,”’ Charles told faith leaders in September.

“That has led me to understand that the Sovereign has an additional duty — less formally recognized but to be no less diligently discharged. It is the duty to protect the diversity of our country, including by protecting the space for faith itself and its practice through the religions, cultures, traditions and beliefs to which our hearts and minds direct us as individuals.”

That’s not an easy task in a country where religious and cultural differences sometimes boil over.

Just last summer, Muslim and Hindu youths clashed in the city of Leicester. The main opposition Labour Party has struggled to rid itself of antisemitism, and the government’s counterterrorism strategy has been criticised for focusing on Muslims. Then there are the sectarian differences that still separate Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland.

Head of state

Such tensions underscore the crucial need for Britain to have a head of state who personally works to promote inclusivity, said Farhan Nizami, director of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies.

Charles has been the centre’s patron for 30 years, lending his stature to Nizami’s effort to build an academic hub for studying all facets of the Islamic world, including history, science and literature, as well as religion. During those years, the centre moved from a nondescript wooden structure to a complex that has its own library, conference facilities and a mosque complete with dome and minaret.

“It is very important that we have a king who has been consistently committed to (inclusivity),” Nizami said. “It is so relevant in the modern age, with all the mobility, with the difference and diversity that exists, that the head of this state should bring people together, both by example and action.”

Those actions are sometimes small. But they resonate with people like Balwinder Shukra, who saw the king a few months ago when he officially opened the Guru Nanak Gurdwara, a Sikh house of worship, in Luton, an ethnically diverse city of almost 300,000 north of London.

Shukra, 65, paused from patting out flatbreads known as chapatis for the communal meal the gurdwara serves to all comers, adjusted her floral shawl, and expressed her admiration for Charles’ decision to sit on the floor with other members of the congregation.

Referring to the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy book, Shukra said that “all the people (are) equal.” It “doesn’t matter” if you are king, she added.

Some British newspapers have suggested that Charles’ desire to include other faiths in the coronation faced resistance from the Church of England, and one conservative religious commentator recently warned that a multi faith ceremony could weaken the “kingly roots” of the monarchy.

But George Gross, who studies the link between religion and monarchy, dismissed these concerns.

The crowning of monarchs

The crowning of monarchs is a tradition that stretches back to the ancient Egyptians and Romans, so there is nothing intrinsically Christian about it, said Gross, a visiting research fellow at King’s College London. In addition, all of the central religious elements of the service will be conducted by Church of England clergy.

Representatives of other faiths have already been present at other major public events in Britain, such as the Remembrance Day services.

“These things are not unusual in more contemporary settings,” he said “So I think of it the other way: Were there not to be other representatives, it would seem very odd.”

Charles’ commitment to a multifaith society is also a symbol of the progress that’s been made in ending a rift in the Christian tradition that began in 1534, when Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church and declared himself head of the Church of England.

That split ushered in hundreds of years of tensions between Catholics and Anglicans that finally faded during the queen’s reign, said Cardinal Vincent Nichols, the most senior Catholic clergyman in England. Nichols will be in the Abbey when Charles is crowned on Saturday.

“I get lots of privileges,” he said cheerfully. “But this will be one of the greatest, I think, to play a part in the coronation of the monarch.”

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King Charles III’s coronation: carriages, crown jewels, emoji unveiled by Britain’s royal family

Britain’s royal family has revealed new details about King Charles III’s coronation next month with information on processional routes, carriages, and coronation regalia and unveiled a new emoji to mark the ceremony that will be less elaborate than the one staged in 1953 for his mother.

Charles, 74, who immediately became king when Queen Elizabeth II died last September after her record-breaking 70-year reign, will be formally crowned on May 6.

The coronation will take place almost 70 years after the last Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in June 1953.

Buckingham Palace on Sunday revealed further details ahead of the coronation.

The new British sovereign will be crowned alongside his wife, Camilla, in a deeply religious service at Westminster Abbey.

Also Read | King Charles III holds rare phone conversation with Prime Minister Modi

On the morning of the May 6, the King and Queen Consort will travel from Buckingham Palace in The King’s Procession to Westminster Abbey in the Diamond Jubilee State Coach. Created for Queen Elizabeth II to commemorate the 60th anniversary of Her late Majesty’s reign in 2012, the coach has only ever conveyed the Sovereign, occasionally accompanied by the consort or a visiting Head of State.

The Australian-built Diamond Jubilee State Coach IS the newest of the royal carriages, the BBC reported.

This looks traditional, but is actually modern, with air conditioning, electric windows and up-to-date suspension.

“It’s made of aluminium, which is quite unusual, because most of them are made of wood, and it’s also got hydraulic suspension, meaning that the ride is incredibly comfortable,” says Sally Goodsir, curator at the Royal Collection Trust.

The gilded crown on the top of the Diamond Jubilee State Coach was carved from oak from HMS Victory.

Also Read | King Charles III proclaimed Britain’s monarch in historic ceremony

The coach’s interior is inlaid with samples of woods, metals and other materials from buildings and places with specific connections to Britain and its history; Royal Residences including Buckingham Palace, Kensington Palace, Windsor Castle and the Palace of Holyroodhouse; cathedrals including St Paul’s and Westminster Abbey; and historic ships, such as the Mary Rose. The coach will be drawn by six Windsor Greys.

The King’s Procession, accompanied by The Sovereign’s Escort of the Household Cavalry, will depart Buckingham Palace through the Centre Gate, and proceed down The Mall, passing through the Admiralty Arch and south of King Charles I Island, down Whitehall and along Parliament Street.

The King’s Procession will travel around the east and south sides of Parliament Square to Broad Sanctuary to arrive at the Sanctuary of Westminster Abbey, where the Coronation Service will begin at 11 o’clock.

In keeping with the king’s wish for a smaller-scale ceremony, the 1.3-mile (2.1km) procession will be much shorter than that staged for the coronation of his mother, The Guardian newspaper said.

The procession from Westminster Abbey to Buckingham Palace will be much larger in scale, taking the same route in reverse. The Coronation Procession will include Armed Forces from across the Commonwealth and the British Overseas Territories, and all Services of the Armed Forces of the United Kingdom, alongside The Sovereign’s Bodyguard and Royal Watermen.

The King and the Queen will return to the palace in the traditional — but notoriously uncomfortable — Gold State Coach, used in every coronation since the 1830s.

The coach, last seen during the Pageant of the Platinum Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II in June 2022, was commissioned in 1760 and was first used by King George III, to travel to the State Opening of Parliament in 1762.

The coach has been used at every Coronation since that of William IV in 1831. The coach will be drawn by eight Windsor Greys and, due to its weight of four tonnes, will travel at a walking pace.

Upon returning to Buckingham Palace following the Coronation Service, Their Majesties will receive a Royal Salute from the United Kingdom and Commonwealth Armed Forces who have been on parade that day. The Royal Salute will be followed by three cheers from the assembled service personnel, as a tribute from the Armed Forces on parade to The King and The Queen.

The palace has also outlined the coronation regalia which are “sacred and secular objects” symbolic of the “responsibilities of the monarch” that will be featured in the Westminster service.

The regalia — which is held in trust by the monarch on the nation’s behalf — have played a principal role in coronation services for centuries.

Among the treasures to be used, which are usually on public display at the Tower of London, will be the Imperial State Crown which is only used at ceremonial events and was made for King George VI’s 1937 coronation.

Charles will exchange it for St Edward’s Crown at the end of the service. Made of solid gold and trimmed with ermine and velvet, it is famously heavy — weighing more than five pounds (2.23kg).

As previously announced, Camilla is reusing Queen Mary’s Crown rather than commissioning a new one to be made.

Two heavy maces made of silver gilt over oak and several ceremonial swords — The Sword of State, the Sword of Temporal Justice, the Sword of Spiritual Justice and the Sword of Mercy — will also be used. Additionally, several instruments of state will feature including the Sovereign’s orb and two sceptres, which represent the monarch’s temporal power and spiritual role.

The oldest item being used will be a spoon to hold the oil for the anointing in the coronation. This spoon, possibly 12th Century, is a rare surviving part of the original medieval coronation regalia, most of which was destroyed after the English Civil War in the 17th Century, BBC said.

Among more than 2,000 guests expected to be in the Abbey will be 450 representatives of charity and community groups, who will be alongside world leaders, politicians and royalty.

Indian-origin chef Manju Malhi, who works with a senior citizens charity in the U.K., is among the British Empire Medal (BEM) winners on the royal invitation list for the coronation.

In addition to the new details on processional routes, carriages and coronation regalia, a new emoji has even been designed to mark the celebrations. Based on St Edward’s Crown, it will appear on Twitter when coronation hashtags are used over the holiday weekend.

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